
Measuring the Strength of the Weak
Force After 7 years of taking data and 2 more years of analysis, the SLD Experiment at SLAC has finalized its precise measurement of the amount of parity violation when massive Z particles are produced in high energy collisions of electrons and positrons. This measurement gives the world’s best determination of the weak mixing angle, a fundamental parameter of the theory for electroweak forces that is related to the strength of this force. SLAC's measurement predicts that the Higgs particle (necessary to explain how particles obtain mass in the Standard Model of particle physics) is light enough to be seen soon at Fermilab’s Tevatron proton collider. SLAC's measurement is also consistent with recent evidence from CERN's LEP experiments for a light Higgs of mass 115 GeV. The SLD Experiment at SLAC’s Linear Collider (SLC) produced over half a million Z particles in 7 years of operation from 19921998. The SLC was the world’s first and only linear collider, and was a successful prototype for the next generation of electron colliders. The SLC accelerated and collided beams of electrons and positrons (antielectrons). The energies of the 2 colliding beams were tuned to add up to the rest mass of the Z, which is 97 times heavier than the proton, to yield a high Z production rate. SLD Event Display of a Z^{ }particle decaying to two quarks. An electron and positron travelling in opposite directions (perpendicular to this page) collided at the center of the detector and annihilated, creating a Z^{ }. The Z^{ }subsequently decayed to a quark and antiquark, which then hadronized to form two jets of particles traveling in opposite directions. These are the two jets of green tracks seen in this projection. Electrons, like visible light, can be polarized. They have an intrinsic spin (angular momentum) which can be oriented parallel (righthanded polarization) or antiparallel (lefthanded polarization) to their momentum direction. In a similar way that polaroid sunglasses transmit verticallypolarized light preferentially to horizontallypolarized light, the strength of the weak nuclear force (unlike the electromagnetic force or the strong nuclear force) is different for righthanded and lefthanded particles. Neutral Z particles and charged W^{+} and W^{} particles transmit the weak force (radioactivity is an example of a weak force interaction) and do so with different strengths for righthanded and lefthanded particles. The W^{+} and W^{ }interact only with lefthanded particles, while the Z interacts with both but with different strengths. This leftright asymmetry in weak interactions is known as parity violation. SLD has measured very precisely the
asymmetry in Z interactions with righthanded and lefthanded electrons. This parityviolating asymmetry is such
that a beam of lefthanded electrons will produce 30% more Z particles in collisions with
a beam of unpolarized positrons compared to a beam of righthanded electrons. SLD measures this asymmetry to be A_{LR}=(s_{L}s_{R})/(s_{L}+s_{R})=0.1513 +/ 0.0021, where s_{L} and s_{R} are the crosssections (or
probabilities) for left and righthanded electrons to produce Z particles when
annihilating with unpolarized positrons. The Standard Model of particle physics describes the fundamental particles (the basic building blocks) of the Universe and how they interact via the strong and electroweak forces. These fundamental particles include the matter particles  quarks and leptons, which combine to form macroscopic particles  and the force particles, which transmit interactions between the matter particles. With the recent observations of the top quark in 1995 and the tau neutrino in 2000 at Fermilab, all the matter and force particles of the Standard Model have now been observed. There is, however, one missing category of particle predicted by the Standard Model, and that category contains a single Higgs particle. The Higgs particle interacts with all types of matter and force particles, and is responsible for generating their masses. If the Standard Model is correct, established measurements of the Z particle mass at CERN and the top quark mass at Fermilab now allow predictions for the Higgs' mass from accurate measurements of the weak mixing angle and from other precision measurements, such as the mass of the W particle. Similar precision measurements accurately predicted the mass of the top quark before it was discovered at Fermilab’s Tevatron collider. That important result was acknowledged in the 1999 awarding of the Nobel prize in physics to Gerardus ‘t Hooft and Martinus Veltman, for their important work in developing the mathematical tools necessary to perform precise calculations of the dynamics of interacting particles. SLD’s A_{LR} measurement gives the world's most precise estimate for the mass of the Higgs particle and predicts that the Higgs should be lighter than 147 GeV* (Giga, or billion, electronVolts; for example a proton weighs about 1 GeV). At the same time, direct searches for the Higgs at LEP (an electronpositron collider at the CERN laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland) indicate that it should be heavier than 113 GeV, with tantalizing evidence for its existence at a mass of 115 GeV! At Fermilab’s Tevatron proton collider, if enough data can be gathered by its CDF and D0 experiments in the next 5 years, the Higgs particle should be found  if it exists! Current experimental results from SLAC, CERN and Fermilab indicate that either the Higgs is light and should soon be discovered, or that the Standard Model is wrong and the new physics that takes the place of the Higgs should soon be discovered. Both prospects are very exciting!
Likelihood plots for the Higgs mass. The yellow region is excluded by direct searches for the Higgs by the LEP experiments. The curves represent probability distributions for what the Higgs mass should be, based on different experimental techniques. The minimum of the curves is the most likely Higgs mass, and where the curves intersect the 95% CL or 99% CL lines indicate that the Higgs mass should be below that intersection point with 95% or 99% confidence, respectively. The most precise prediction comes from the SLD experiment (see Higgs mass predictions for more details). *We use the LEPmeasured Z boson mass and the Tevatronmeasured top quark mass, a recent determination (hepph/0008078) of the fine structure constant a(M_{Z}^{2}), and the ZFITTER 6.23 program. The uncertainty in a(M_{Z}^{2}) contributes to the Higgs' mass upper bounds obtainable from precision measurements; we have chosen an estimate for a(M_{Z}^{2}) that provides the least stringent limit. SLD obtains a 95% confidence level upper bound of 147 GeV for the Higgs mass. Links
related to SLD's A_{LR} measurement of the weak mixing angle: Other useful
links: Related SLD Publications: 
Last Updated: April 06, 2001 by M. Woods, T. Abe and P. Rowson
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